Bjorn Lomborg, a Danish economist, estimated in 2015 that $2.5 trillion will be spent in international development assistance over the subsequent 15 years. But there remains significant debate about the optimal means of spending this money. What are the most impactful means of delivering aid? Moreover, what goals should be set and against what metrics should success be measured? Beyond aid, we will explore more direct efforts at economic development through private sector investments and see if companies can be incentivized to invest in delivering social outcomes. In answering all of these questions, this talk will also introduce innovative financing solutions, such as outcome payment mechanisms and pioneering new software for direct cash transfers, as we look at the potential impact of technological innovation in this space.